HOLY FAMILY

UKRAINIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH

CATECHISM OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE                                               
 



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THE PURPOSE OF MAN'S EXISTENCE      BACK TO TOP

1.    Who made you?  God made me.

2.    Why did God make you?  God made me to know Him, love Him and serve Him in this world, and be happy with Him forever in the next. 

3.    From Whom do we learn to know, love, and serve God? We learn to know, love, and serve God from Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Who teaches us through the Catholic Church.

4.    To whose image and likeness did God make you?  God made me to His own image and likeness.

5.    Is this likeness to God in your body, or in your soul? This likeness to God is chiefly in my soul.

6.    How is your soul like to God? My soul is like to God because it is a spirit having understanding and free will, and is immortal.

7.    What do you mean when you say that your soul is immortal? When I say my soul is immortal, I mean that my soul can never die.

8.    Of which must you take most care, of your body or of your soul? I must take most care of my soul, for Christ has said, 'What doth it profit a man if he gain the whole world, and suffer the loss of his own soul?' Matt. 16:26 (In Catholic theology, the soul and body are not opposed to each other. The human body is a temple of the Holy Ghost, made to the image and likeness of God. Salvation is for the whole person, both body and soul.)

9.    What must you do to save your soul? To save my soul I must worship God by Faith, Hope and Charity; that is, I must believe in Him, I must hope in Him, and I must love Him with my whole heart.

10.    What is faith? Faith is a supernatural gift of God, which enables us to believe without doubting whatever God has revealed.

11.    Why must you believe whatever God has revealed? I must believe whatever God has revealed because God is the very truth, and can neither deceive nor be deceived.

12.    How are you to know what God has revealed? I am to know what God has revealed by the testimony, teaching, and authority of the Catholic Church.

13.    Who gave the Catholic Church divine authority to teach? Jesus Christ gave the Catholic Church divine authority to teach, when He said, 'Go ye and teach all nations.' Matt.28:19


THE APOSTLES' CREED      BACK TO TOP

14.    What are the chief things which God has revealed? The chief things which God has revealed are contained in the Apostles' Creed.

15.    Say the Apostles' Creed. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; - and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; - Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary; - suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried; - He descended into hell; the third day He rose again from the dead; - He ascended into heaven; is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; - from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. - I believe in the Holy Ghost; - the Holy Catholic Church; the Communion of Saints; - the forgiveness of sins; - the resurrection of the body; - and life everlasting. Amen.

16.    How is the Apostles' Creed divided? The Apostles' Creed is divided into twelve parts or articles.


 
FIRST ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP

17.    What is the first article of the Creed? The first article of the Creed is, 'I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth'.

18.    What is God? God is the supreme Spirit, Who alone exists of Himself, and is infinite in all perfections.

19.    Why is God called Almighty? God is called 'Almighty' because He can do all things: 'With God all things are possible'. Matt 19:26

20.    Why is God called Creator of heaven and earth? God is called 'Creator of heaven and earth' because He made heaven and earth, and all things, out of nothing, by His word.

21.    Had God any beginning? God had no beginning: He always was, He is, and He always will be.

22.    Where is God? God is everywhere.

23.    Does God know and see all things? God knows and sees all things, even our most secret thoughts.

24.    Has God any body? God has no body; He is a spirit.

25.    Is there only one God? There is only one God.

26.    Are there three Persons in God? There are three Persons in God: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.

27.    Are these three Persons three Gods? These three Persons are not three Gods: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are all one and the same God.

28.    What is the mystery of the three Persons in one God called? The mystery of the three Persons in one God is called the mystery of the Blessed Trinity.

29.    What do you mean by a mystery? By a mystery I mean a truth which is above reason, but revealed by God.

30.    Is there any likeness to the Blessed Trinity in your soul? There is this likeness to the Blessed Trinity in my soul: that as in one God there are three Persons, so in my one soul there are three powers.

31.    Which are the three powers of your soul? The three powers of my soul are my memory, my understanding, and my will.

32.    Can we know by our natural reason that there is a God? We can know by our natural reason that there is a God, for natural reason tells us that the world we see about us could have been made only by a self-existing being, all-wise and almighty.

33.    Can we know God in any other way than by our natural reason? Besides knowing God by our natural reason, we can also know Him from supernatural revelation, that is, from the truths found in Sacred Scripture and in Tradition, which God Himself has revealed to us.

CREATION & THE ANGELS      BACK TO TOP

34.    Which are the chief creations of God? The chief creations of God are angels and men.

35.    What are angels? Angels are created spirits, without bodies, having understanding and free will.

36.    What gifts did God bestow on the angels when He created them? When God created the angels He bestowed on them great wisdom, power, and holiness.

37.    Did all the angels remain faithful to God? Not all the angels remained faithful to God; some of them sinned.
38.    What happened to the angels who remained faithful to God? The angels who remained faithful to God entered into the eternal happiness of heaven, and these are called good angels.
 
39.    What do the good angels do in heaven? In heaven the good angels see, love, and adore God.

40.    How do the good angels help us? The good angels help us by praying for us, by acting as messengers from God to us, and by serving as our guardian angels.

41.    How do our guardian angels help us? Our guardian angels help us by praying for us, by protecting us from harm, and by inspiring us to do good.

42.    What happened to the angels who did not remain faithful to God? The angels who did not remain faithful to God were cast into hell, and these are called bad angels, or devils.

43.    What is the chief way in which the bad angels try to harm us? The chief way in which the bad angels try to harm us is by tempting us to sin.

44.    Do all temptations come from the bad angels? Some temptations come from the bad angels, but other temptations come from ourselves and from the persons and things about us.

45.    Can we always resist temptations? We can always resist temptations, because no temptation can force us to sin, and because God will always help us if we ask Him.

THE SECOND ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP

46.    What is the second article of the Creed? The second article of the Creed is, 'and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord'.

47.    Who is Jesus Christ? Jesus Christ is God the Son, made man for us.

48.    Is Jesus Christ truly God? Jesus Christ is truly God.

49.    Why is Jesus Christ truly God? Jesus Christ is truly God because He has one and the same nature with God the Father.

50.    Was Jesus Christ always God? Jesus Christ was always God, born of the Father from all eternity.

51.    Which Person of the Blessed Trinity is Jesus Christ? Jesus Christ is the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity.

52.    Is Jesus Christ truly man? Jesus Christ is truly man.

53.    Why is Jesus Christ truly man? Jesus Christ is truly man because He has the nature of man, having a body and soul like ours.

54.    Was Jesus Christ always man? Jesus Christ was not always man. He has been man only from the time of His Incarnation.

55.    What do you mean by the Incarnation? I mean by the Incarnation that God the Son took to Himself the nature of man: 'the Word was made Flesh'.

56.    How many natures are there in Jesus Christ? There are two natures in Jesus Christ, the nature of God and the nature of man.

57.    Is there only one Person in Jesus Christ? There is only one Person in Jesus Christ, which is the Person of God the Son.

58.    Why was God the Son made man? God the Son was made man to redeem us from sin and hell, and to teach us the way to heaven.

59.    What does the holy name Jesus mean? The holy name JESUS means Saviour. Matt. 1:21

60.    What does the name Christ mean? The name CHRIST means Anointed.
 
61.    Where is Jesus Christ? As God, Jesus Christ is everywhere. As God made man, He is in heaven, and in the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar.

THE THIRD ARTICLE OF THE CREED     BACK TO TOP

62.    What is the third article of the Creed? The third article of the Creed is, 'Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary'.

63.    What does the third article mean? The third article means that God the Son took a Body and Soul like ours, in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by the power of the Holy Ghost.

64.    When was the Son of God conceived and made man? The Son of God was conceived and made man on Annunciation Day, the day on which the Angel Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she was to be the Mother of God.

65.    Had Jesus Christ any father on earth? Jesus Christ had no father on earth: St. Joseph was only His guardian or foster-father.

66.    Where was our Saviour born? Our Saviour was born in a stable at Bethlehem.

67.    On what day was our Saviour born? Our Saviour was born on Christmas Day.

THE FOURTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP

68.    What is the fourth article of the Creed? The fourth article of the Creed is, 'suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and buried'.

69.    What were the chief sufferings of Christ? The chief sufferings of Christ were: first, His agony, and His sweat of blood in the Garden; secondly, His being scourged at the pillar, and crowned with thorns; and thirdly, His carrying His cross, His crucifixion, and His death between two thieves.

70.    What are the chief sufferings of our Lord called? The chief sufferings of our Lord are called the Passion of Jesus Christ.

71.    Why did our Saviour suffer? Our Saviour suffered to atone for our sins, and to purchase for us eternal life.

72.    What is meant by the Redemption? By the Redemption is meant that Jesus Christ, as the Redeemer of the whole human race, offered His sufferings and death to God as a fitting sacrifice in satisfaction for the sins of men, and regained for them the right to be children of God and heirs of heaven.

73.    Why is Jesus Christ called our Redeemer? Jesus Christ is called our Redeemer because His Precious Blood is the price by which we were ransomed.

74.    On what day did our Saviour die? Our Saviour died on Good Friday.

75.    Where did our Saviour die? Our Saviour died on Mount Calvary.

76.    What do we learn from the sufferings and death of Christ? From the sufferings and death of Christ we learn God's love for man and the evil of sin, for which God, Who is all just, demands such great satisfaction.

77.    Why do we make the sign of the cross? We make the sign of the cross - first, to put us in mind of the Blessed Trinity: and secondly, to remind us that God the Son died for us on the Cross.

78.    In making the sign of the cross how are we reminded of the Blessed Trinity? In making the sign of the cross we are reminded of the Blessed Trinity by the words, 'In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost'.

79.    In making the sign of the cross how are we reminded that Christ died for us on the Cross? In making the sign of the cross we are reminded that Christ died for us on the Cross by the very form of the cross which we make upon ourselves.
 
THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP

80.    What is the fifth article of the Creed? The fifth article of the Creed is, 'He descended into hell; the third day he rose again from the dead'.

81.    What do you mean by the words, 'He descended into hell'? By the words, 'He descended into hell', I mean that, as soon as Christ was dead, His blessed Soul went down into that part of hell called Limbo.

82.    What do you mean by Limbo? By Limbo I mean a place of rest, where the souls of the just who died before Christ were detained.

83.    Why were the souls of the just detained in Limbo? The souls of the just were detained in Limbo because they could not go up to the kingdom of heaven till Christ had opened it for them.

84.    Why did Christ go to Limbo? Christ went to Limbo to announce to the souls waiting there the joyful news that He had opened heaven to mankind.

85.    Where was Christ's body while His soul was in Limbo? While His soul was in Limbo, Christ's body was in the holy sepulchre.

86.    What do you mean by the words, 'the third day He rose again from the dead'? By the words, 'the third day He rose again from the dead,' I mean that, after Christ had been dead and buried part of three days, He raised His blessed Body to life again on the third day.

87.    On what day did Christ rise again from the dead? Christ rose again from the dead on Easter Sunday.

88.    Why did Christ rise from the dead? Christ rose from the dead to show that He is true God and to teach us that we, too, shall rise from the dead.

89.    Will all men rise from the dead? All men will rise from the dead, but only those who have been faithful to Christ will share in His glory.

THE SIXTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP

90.    What is the sixth article of the Creed? The sixth article of the Creed is, 'He ascended into heaven; is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty'.

91.    What do you mean by the words, 'He ascended into heaven'? By the words, 'He ascended into heaven', I mean that our Saviour went up Body and Soul into heaven on Ascension Day, forty days after His resurrection.

92.    Why did Christ remain on earth forty days after His Resurrection? Christ remained on earth forty days after His Resurrection to prove that He had truly risen from the dead and to complete the instruction of the apostles.

93.    What do you mean by the words, 'is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty'? By the words, 'is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty' we mean that Our Lord as God is equal to the Father, and that as man He shares above all the saints in the glory of His Father and exercises for all eternity the supreme authority of a king over all creatures.


THE SEVENTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED     BACK TO TOP

94.    What is the seventh article of the Creed? The seventh article of the Creed is, 'from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead'.

95.    When will Christ come again? Christ will come again from heaven at the last day, to judge all mankind.

96.    What are the things Christ will judge? Christ will judge our thoughts, words, works, and omissions.

97.    What will Christ say to the wicked? Christ will say to the wicked: 'Depart from Me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, which was prepared for the devil and His angels'.  Matt. 25:41
 
98.    What will Christ say to the just? Christ will say to the just: 'Come, ye blessed of My Father, possess ye the kingdom prepared for you'. Matt.25:34

99.    Will every one be judged at death, as well as at the last day? Every one will be judged at death, as well as at the last day: 'It is appointed unto men once to die; and after this, the judgment'. Heb. 9:27

THE EIGHTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP

100.    What is the eighth article of the Creed? The eighth article of the Creed is, 'I believe in the Holy Ghost'.

101.    Who is the Holy Ghost? The Holy Ghost is the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

102.    From Whom does the Holy Ghost proceed? The Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son.

103.    Is the Holy Ghost equal to the Father and to the Son? The Holy Ghost is equal to the Father and to the Son, for He is the same Lord and God as They are.

104.    When did the Holy Ghost come down on the Apostles? The Holy Ghost came down on the Apostles on Pentecost, in the form of 'parted tongues, as it were, of fire'. Acts 2:3

105.    Why did the Holy Ghost come down on the Apostles? The Holy Ghost came down on the Apostles to confirm their faith, to sanctify them, and to enable them to found the Church.

106.    What does the Holy Ghost do for the salvation of mankind? The Holy Ghost dwells in the Church as the source of her life and sanctifies souls through the gift of grace.

GRACE      BACK TO TOP

107.    What is grace? Grace is a supernatural gift of God bestowed on us through the merits of Jesus Christ for our salvation.

108.    How many kinds of grace are there? There are two kinds of grace: sanctifying grace and actual grace.

Sanctifying Grace

109.    What is sanctifying grace? Sanctifying grace is that grace which confers on our souls a new life, that is, a sharing in the life of God Himself.

110.    Can sanctifying grace be lost? Sanctifying grace can only be lost through mortal sin.

111.    What are the chief effects of sanctifying grace? The chief effects of sanctifying grace are: first, it makes us holy and pleasing to God; second, it makes us adopted children of God; third, it makes us temples of the Holy Ghost; fourth, it gives us the right to heaven.

112.    Why is sanctifying grace necessary for salvation? Sanctifying grace is necessary for salvation because it is the supernatural life, which alone enables us to attain the supernatural happiness of heaven.

113.    How does one receive sanctifying grace? Sanctifying grace is infused into the soul at the reception of the Sacrament of Baptism.

114.    How does one already baptized, who has lost sanctifying grace by mortal sin, obtain it again? Those already baptized who have lost sanctifying grace through mortal sin are put back into the state of sanctifying grace by the Sacrament of Penance.

Actual Grace

115.    What is actual grace? Actual grace is a supernatural help from God which enlightens our mind and strengthens our will to do good and to avoid evil.

 
116.    Is actual grace necessary for all who have attained the use of reason? Actual grace is necessary for all who have attained the use of reason, because without it we cannot long resist the power of temptation or perform other actions which merit a reward in heaven.

117.    Can we resist the grace of God? We can resist the grace of God, for our will is free, and God does not force us to accept His grace.

118.    What are the principal ways of obtaining grace? The principal ways of obtaining grace are prayer and the sacraments, especially the Holy Eucharist.

119.    How can we make our most ordinary actions merit a heavenly reward? We can make our most ordinary actions merit a heavenly reward by doing them for the love of God and by keeping ourselves in the state of grace.

THE NINTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP

120.    What is the ninth article of the Creed? The ninth article of the Creed is, 'the Holy Catholic Church; the Communion of Saints'.

121.    What is the Catholic Church? The Catholic Church is the one true Church founded by Jesus Christ in which the congregation of all baptized persons are united in the same true faith, the same sacrifice, and the same sacraments, under the authority of the Sovereign Pontiff and the bishops in communion with him.

122.    Who is the Head of the Catholic Church? The Head of the Catholic Church is Jesus Christ, her Founder.

123.    Why did Jesus Christ found the Church? Jesus Christ founded the Church to bring all men to eternal salvation.

124.    How is the Church enabled to lead men to salvation? The Church is enabled to lead men to salvation by the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, Who gives life to the Church.

125.    When was the dwelling of the Holy Ghost in the Church first visibly manifest? The dwelling of the Holy Ghost in the Church was first visibly manifested on Pentecost Sunday, when He came down upon the apostles in the forms of tongues of fire.

126.    How long will the Holy Ghost dwell in the Church? The Holy Ghost will dwell in the Church until the end of time.

127.    What does the indwelling of the Holy Ghost enable the Church to do? The indwelling of the Holy Ghost enables the Church to teach, to sanctify, and to rule the faithful in the name of Christ.

128.    What is meant by teaching, sanctifying, and ruling in the name of Christ? By teaching, sanctifying, and ruling in the name of Christ is meant that the Church always does the will of its Divine Founder, Who remains forever its invisible head.

129.    Has the Church a visible Head on earth? The Church has a visible Head on earth - the Bishop of Rome, who is the Vicar of Christ.

130.    Why is the Bishop of Rome the Head of the Church? The Bishop of Rome is the Head of the Church because he is the successor of St. Peter, whom Christ appointed to be the Head of the Church.

131.    How do you know that Christ appointed St. Peter to be the Head of the Church? I know that Christ appointed St. Peter to be the Head of the Church because Christ said to him; 'Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And to thee I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven'. Matt. 16:18,19

132.    What is the Bishop of Rome called? The Bishop of Rome is called the Pope, which word signifies Father.

133.    Is the Pope the Spiritual Father of all Catholics? The Pope is the Spiritual Father of all Catholics.
 
134.    Is the Pope the Shepherd and Teacher of all Catholics? The Pope is the Shepherd and Teacher of all Catholics, because Christ made St. Peter the Shepherd of the whole flock when He said: 'Feed My lambs, feed My sheep'. He also prayed that his 'faith' might never fail, and commanded him to 'confirm' his brethren. Jn.21:15-17,Lk.22:32

135.    Is the Pope infallible? The Pope is infallible.

136.    What do you mean when you say that the Pope is infallible? When I say that the Pope is infallible, I mean that the Pope cannot err when, as Shepherd and Teacher of all Catholics, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals, to be held by the whole Church.

FOUR MARKS OF THE CHURCH      BACK TO TOP

137.    Which is the one true Church established by Jesus Christ? The one true Church established by Jesus Christ is the Catholic Church.

138.    How do we know that the Catholic Church is the one true Church established by Jesus Christ? We know that the Catholic Church is the one true Church established by Jesus Christ because she alone has the marks of the true Church.

139.    Which are the marks by which we may know her? The four marks by which we may know her are: she is One - she is Holy - she is Catholic - she is Apostolic.

140.    How is the Church One? The Church is One because all her members, according to the will of Christ, profess one Faith, have all the same Sacrifice and Sacraments, and are all united under one and the same visible head, the Pope.

141.    How is the Church Holy? The Church is Holy because she was founded by Jesus Christ, Who is all-holy, and because she teaches, according to the will of Christ, holy doctrines, and provides the means of leading a holy life, thereby giving holy members to every age.

142.    What does the word Catholic mean? The word Catholic means universal.

143.    How is the Church Catholic or universal? The Church is Catholic or universal because she is destined to last for all time; she never fails to fulfill the divine commandment to teach all nations all the truths revealed by God.

144.    How is the Church Apostolic? The Church is Apostolic because it was founded by Christ on the apostles and, according to His Divine Will, has always been governed by their lawful successors.

145.    How do we know that no other church but the Catholic Church is the true Church of Christ? We know that no other church but the Catholic Church is the true Church of Christ because no other church has these four marks.

CHIEF ATTRIBUTES OF THE CHURCH      BACK TO TOP

146.    What are the chief attributes of the Catholic Church? The chief attributes of the Catholic Church are authority, infallibility, and indefectibility. They are called attributes because they are qualities perfecting the nature of the Church.

147.    What is meant by the authority of the Catholic Church? By the authority of the Catholic Church is meant that the Pope and the bishops, as the lawful successors of the apostles, have power from Christ Himself to teach, to sanctify, and to govern the faithful in spiritual matters.

148.    What is meant by the infallibility of the Catholic Church? By the infallibility of the Catholic Church is meant that the Church, by the special assistance of the Holy Ghost, cannot err when she teaches or believes a doctrine of faith or morals.

149.    When does the Church teach infallibly? The Church teaches infallibly when she defines, through the Pope, as the teacher of all Catholics, a doctrine of faith or morals to be held by all the faithful.
 
150.    How do you know that the Church cannot err in what she teaches? I know that the Church cannot err in what she teaches because Christ promised that the gates of hell shall never prevail against His Church; that the Holy Ghost shall teach her all things; and that He Himself will be with her all days, even to the consummation of the world. Matt. 16:18, John 14:16-26, Matt. 28:20

151.    What is meant by the indefectibility of the Catholic Church? By the indefectibility of the Catholic Church is meant that the Church as Christ founded her, will last until the end of time.

152.    Are all men obliged to belong to the Catholic Church in order to be saved? All men are obliged to belong to the Catholic Church in order to be saved. This is a thrice-defined infallible teaching of the Church.

153.    Why is the Catholic Church called the Mystical Body of Christ? The Catholic Church is called the Mystical Body of Christ because her members are united by supernatural bonds with one another and with Christ, their Head, thus resembling the members and head of the living human body.

154.    Can there be supernatural life apart from the Mystical Body of Christ? Just as a limb cannot survive if separated from the body, neither can a soul have supernatural life if separated from the Mystical Body of Christ, the Catholic Church.

THE COMMUNION OF SAINTS      BACK TO TOP

155.    What do you mean by the Communion of Saints? By the Communion of Saints I mean that all the members of the Church, in heaven, on earth, and in purgatory, are in communion with each other, as being one body in Jesus Christ.

156.    How are the faithful on earth in communion with each other? The faithful on earth are in communion with each other by professing the same faith, obeying the same authority, and assisting each other with their prayers and good works.

157.    How are we in communion with the saints in heaven? We are in communion with the Saints in heaven by honouring them as the glorified members of the Church, and also by our praying to them, and by their praying for us.

158.    How are we in communion with the souls in purgatory? We are in communion with the souls in purgatory by helping them with our prayers and good works: 'It is a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sins'.

159.    What is purgatory? Purgatory is a place where souls suffer for a time after death on account of their sins.

160.    What souls go to purgatory? Those souls go to purgatory that depart this life in venial sin; or that have not fully paid the debt of temporal punishment due to those sins of which the guilt has been forgiven.

161.    What is temporal punishment? Temporal punishment is punishment which will have an end, either in this world, or in the world to come.

162.    How do you prove that there is a purgatory? I prove that there is a purgatory from the constant teaching of the Church; and from the doctrine of Holy Scripture, which declares that God will render to every man according to his works; that nothing defiled shall enter heaven; and that some will be saved, "as one who has gone through fire". Matt. 16:27, Apoc. 21:27.1, Cor. 3:15

THE TENTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP

163.    What is the tenth article of the Creed? The tenth article of the Creed is, 'the forgiveness of sins'.

164.    What do you mean by 'the forgiveness of sins'? By 'the forgiveness of sins' is meant that God has given to the Church, through Jesus Christ, the power to forgive sins, no matter how great or how many they are, if sinners truly repent.

165.    By what means are sins forgiven? Sins are forgiven principally by the Sacraments of Baptism and Penance.

 
SIN & TYPES OF SIN     BACK TO TOP

166.    What is sin? Sin is an offence against God, by any thought, word, deed or omission against the law of God.

167.    How many kinds of sin are there? There are two kinds of sin, original sin and actual sin.

Original Sin

168.    What is original sin? Original sin is that guilt and stain of sin which we inherit from Adam, who was the origin and head of all mankind.

169.    What was the sin committed by Adam and Eve? The sin committed by Adam and Eve was the sin of disobedience when they ate the forbidden fruit.

170.    What happened to Adam and Eve on account of their sin? On account of their sin Adam and Eve lost sanctify-ing grace, the right to heaven, and their special gifts; they became subject to death, to suffering, and to a strong inclination to evil, and they were driven from the Garden of Eden.

171.    What happened to us on account of original sin? On account of original sin, we, the descendants of Adam and Eve, come into the world deprived of sanctifying grace and inherit their punishment, as we would have inherited their gifts had they been obedient to God.

172.    Is God unjust in punishing us on account of the sin of Adam and Eve? God is not unjust in punishing us on account of the sin of Adam and Eve, because original sin does not take away from us anything to which we have a strict right as human beings, but only the free gifts which God in His goodness would have bestowed on us if Adam and Eve had not sinned.

173.    Have all mankind contracted the guilt and stain of original sin? All mankind have contracted the guilt and stain of original sin, except the Blessed Virgin, who, through the merits of her Divine Son, was conceived without the least guilt or stain of original sin.

174.    What is this privilege of the Blessed Virgin called? This privilege of the Blessed Virgin is called the Immaculate Conception.

Actual Sin

175.    What is actual sin? Actual sin is every sin which we ourselves commit.

176.    How is actual sin divided? Actual sin is divided into mortal sin and venial sin.

177.    What is mortal sin? Mortal sin is a grievous offence against God.

178.    Why is it called mortal sin? It is called mortal, or deadly, because it deprives the sinner of sanctifying grace, the supernatural life of the soul.

179.     Besides depriving the sinner of sanctifying grace, what else does mortal sin do to the soul? Besides depriving the sinner of sanctifying grace, mortal sin makes the soul an enemy of God, takes away the merit of all its good actions, deprives it of the right to everlasting happiness in heaven, and makes it deserving of everlasting punishment in hell.

180.    What three things are necessary to make a sin mortal? To make a sin a mortal sin these three things are necessary: first, the thought, desire, word, action, or omission must be seriously wrong or considered seriously wrong; second, the sinner must be mindful of the serious wrong; third, the sinner must fully consent to it.

181.    Is it a great evil to fall into mortal sin? It is the greatest of all evils to fall into mortal sin.

182.    Where will they go who die in mortal sin? They who die in mortal sin will go to hell for all eternity.

183.    What is venial sin? Venial sin is a less serious offence against the law of God, which does not deprive the soul of sanctifying grace, and which can be pardoned even without sacramental confession. 
 
184.     How can a sin be venial? A sin can be venial in two ways: first, when the evil done is not seriously wrong; second, when the evil done is seriously wrong, but the sinner sincerely believes it is only slightly wrong, or does not give full consent to it.

185.    How does venial sin harm us? Venial sin harms us by making us less fervent in the service of God, by weakening our power to resist mortal sin, and by making us deserving of God's punishments in this life or in purgatory.

186.    How can we keep from committing sin? We can keep from committing sin by praying and by receiving the sacraments; by remembering that God is always with us; by recalling that our bodies are temples of the Holy Ghost; by keeping occupied with work or play; by promptly resisting the sources of sin within us; by avoiding the near occasions of sin.

187.    What are the chief causes of actual sin? The chief sources of actual sin are: pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth, and these are commonly called the Capital Sins.

188.    Why are these called Capital Sins? These are called Capital Sins, not because they, in themselves, are the greatest sins, but because they are the chief reasons why men commit sin.

THE ELEVENTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED     BACK TO TOP

189.    What is the eleventh article of the Creed? The eleventh article of the Creed is, 'the resurrection of the body'.

190.    What do you mean by 'the resurrection of the body'? By the resurrection of the body I mean that at the end of the world the bodies of all men will rise from the earth and be united again to their souls, nevermore to be separated.

191.    Why will the bodies of the just rise? The bodies of the just will rise to share forever in the glory of their souls.

192.    Why will the bodies of the damned also rise? The bodies of the damned will also rise to share in the eternal punishment of their souls.

193.    What is the judgment called which will be passed on all men immediately after the general resurrection? The judgment which will be passed on all men immediately after the general resurrection is called the General Judgment.

194.    What is the judgment called which will be passed on each on of us immediately after death? The judgment which will be passed on each one of us immediately after death is called the Particular Judgment.

195.    If everyone is judged immediately after death, why will there be a General Judgment? Although everyone is judged immediately after death, it is fitting that there be a General Judgment in order that the justice, wisdom, and mercy of God may be glorified in the presence of all.

Heaven, Purgatory, Hell

196.    What are the rewards or punishments appointed for men after the Particular Judgment? The rewards or punishments appointed for men after the Particular Judgment are heaven, purgatory, or hell.

197.    Who are punished in purgatory? Those are punished for a time in purgatory who die in the state of grace but are guilty of venial sin, or have not fully satisfied for the temporal punishment due to their sins.

198.    Who are punished in hell? Those are punished in hell who die mortal sin; they are deprived of the vision of God and suffer dreadful torments, especially that of fire, for all eternity.

199.    Who are rewarded in heaven? Those are rewarded in heaven are those who have died in the state of grace and have been purified in purgatory, if necessary, from all venial sin and all debt of temporal punishment; they see God face to face and share forever in His glory and happiness.

THE TWELFTH ARTICLE OF THE CREED      BACK TO TOP
 
200.    What is the twelfth article of the Creed? The twelfth article of the Creed is, 'life everlasting'.

201.    What does 'life everlasting' mean? 'Life everlasting' means that the good shall live forever in the glory and happiness of heaven.

202.    What is the glory and happiness of heaven? The glory and happiness of heaven is to see, love, and enjoy God forever.

203.    What does the Scripture say of the happiness of heaven? The Scripture says of the happiness of heaven: 'That eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man, what things God hath prepared for them that love Him'. 1 Cor. 2:9

Faith, Hope, and Charity

204.    What are the three theological virtues? The three theological virtues are faith, hope, and charity.

205.     Why are they called theological? They are called theological because they have God for their proper object.

206.    What is faith? Faith is the virtue by which we firmly believe all the truths God has revealed, on the word of God revealing them, Who can neither deceive nor be deceived.

207.    Will Faith alone save us? Faith alone will not save us without good works; we must also have Hope and Charity.

208.    What is Hope? Hope is the virtue by which we firmly trust that God, Who is all-powerful and faithful to His promises, will in His mercy give us eternal life and all means necessary to obtain it.

209.    Why must we hope in God? We must hope in God because He is infinitely good, infinitely powerful, and faithful to His promises.

210.    Can we do any good work of ourselves towards our salvation? We can do no good work of ourselves towards our salvation; we need the help of God's grace.

211.    What is Charity? Charity is the virtue by which we love God above all things for His own sake, and our neighbour as ourselves for the love of God.

212.    What is Grace? Grace is a supernatural gift of God, freely bestowed upon us for our sanctification and salvation.

213.    How must we obtain God's grace? We must obtain God's grace chiefly by prayer and the holy Sacraments.

214.    What is prayer? Prayer is the raising up of the mind and heart to God.

215.    How do we raise up our mind and heart to God? We raise up our mind and heart to God by thinking of God; by adoring, praising, and thanking Him; and by begging of Him all blessings for soul and body.

216.    Do those pray well who, at their prayers, think neither of God nor of what they say? Those who, at their prayers, think neither of God nor of what they say, do not pray well; but they offend God, if their distractions are wilful.

217.    Which is the best of all prayers? The best of all prayers is the 'Our Father', or the Lord's Prayer.

THE OUR FATHER      BACK TO TOP

218.    Who made the Lord's Prayer? Jesus Christ Himself made the Lord's Prayer.

219.    Why is the Our Father the best of all prayers? The Our Father is the best of all prayers because it is the Lord's Prayer, taught by Jesus Christ Himself, and because it is a prayer of perfect and unselfish love.

 
220.    Why is the Our Father a prayer of perfect and unselfish love? The Our Father is a prayer of perfect and unselfish love because in saying it we offer ourselves entirely to God and ask from Him the best things, not only for ourselves but also for our neighbour.

221.    Say the Lord's Prayer. Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven; give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil. Amen.

222.    In the Lord's Prayer Who is called 'our Father'? In the Lord's Prayer God is called 'our Father'.

223.    Why is God called 'our Father'? God is called 'our Father' because He is the Father of all Christians, whom He has made His children by Holy Baptism.

224.    Is God also the Father of all mankind? God is also the Father of all mankind because He made them all, and loves and preserves them all.

225.    Why do we say, 'our' Father, and not 'my' Father? We say 'our' Father, and not 'my' Father, because, being all brethren, we are to pray not for ourselves only, but also for all others.

226.    When we say, 'hallowed be Thy name', what do we pray for? When we say 'hallowed be Thy name' we pray that God may be known, loved, and served by all His creatures.

227.    When we say, 'Thy kingdom come', what do we pray for? When we say, 'Thy kingdom come', we pray that God may come and reign in the hearts of all by His grace in this world, that all men may come to know and to enter the true Church and to live s worthy members of it, and that, finally, we may be admitted to heavenly kingdom.

228.    When we say, 'Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven', what do we pray for? When we say, 'Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven', we pray that God may enable us, by His grace, to do His will in all things, as the Blessed do in heaven.

229.    When we say, 'give us this day our daily bread', what do we pray for? When we say, 'give us this day our daily bread', we pray that God may give us daily all that is necessary for soul and body.

230.    When we say, forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us', what do we pray for? When we say, 'forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us', we pray that God may forgive us our sins, as we forgive others the injuries they do to us.

231.    When we say, 'lead us not into temptation', what do we pray for? When we say 'lead us not into temptation', we pray that God may give us grace not to yield to temptation.

232.    When we say, 'deliver us from evil', what do we pray for? When we say, 'deliver us from evil', we pray that God may free us from all evil, both of soul and body.

233.    Should we ask the Angels and Saints to pray for us? We should ask the Angels and Saints to pray for us, because they are our friends and brethren, and because their prayers have great power with God.

234.    How can we show that the Angels and Saints know what passes on earth? We can show that the Angels and Saints know what passes on earth from the words of Christ: 'There shall be joy before the Angels of God upon one sinner doing penance." Luke 15:10

THE HAIL MARY     BACK TO TOP

235.    What is the chief prayer to the Blessed Virgin which the Church uses? The chief prayer to the Blessed Virgin which the church uses is the Hail Mary.

236.    Say the Hail Mary. Hail Mary, full of grace; the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death. Amen.
 
237.    Who made the first part of the Hail Mary? The Angel Gabriel and St. Elizabeth, inspired by the Holy Ghost, made the first part of the Hail Mary.

238.    Who made the second part of the Hail Mary? The Church of God, guided by the Holy Ghost, made the second part of the Hail Mary.

239.    Why should we frequently say the Hail Mary? We should frequently say the Hail Mary to put us in mind of the Incarnation of the Son of God; and to honour our Blessed Lady, the Mother of God.

240.    Have we another reason for often saying the Hail Mary? We have another reason for often saying the Hail Mary - to ask our Blessed Lady to pray for us sinners at all times, but especially at the hour of our death.

241.    Why does the Catholic Church show great devotion to the Blessed Virgin? The Catholic Church shows great devotion to the Blessed Virgin because she is the Immaculate Mother of God.

242.    How is the Blessed Virgin Mother of God? The Blessed Virgin is Mother of God because Jesus Christ, her son, Who was born of her as man, is not only man, but is also truly God.

243.    Is the Blessed Virgin our Mother also? The Blessed Virgin is our Mother also because, being the brethren of Jesus, we are the children of Mary.

244.    What do we mean by the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin? By the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin we mean that by the power of God, Mary, at the completion of her life on earth, was taken body and soul into everlasting glory to reign as Queen of heaven and earth.

245.    Is the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin an article of faith? The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin is an article of faith because it has been solemnly defined by the infallible authority of the Church.

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS      BACK TO TOP

246.    Why must we love God? We must love God because he is infinitely good in Himself and infinitely good to us.

247.    How do we show that we love God? We show that we love God by keeping His commandments: for Christ says: 'If you love me, keep my commandments.' John 14:15, Mt. 19:16, Rom. 13:8-10

248.    How many Commandments are there? There are ten Commandments.

249.    Say the TEN Commandments I am the Lord thy God, Who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, and out of the house of bondage. 1. Thou shalt not have strange gods before Me. Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, nor in the earth beneath, nor of those things that are in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt not adore them nor serve them. 2. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. 3. Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day. 4. Honour thy father and thy mother. 5. Thou shalt not kill. 6. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 7. Thou shalt not steal. 8. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 9. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife. 10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's goods.

250.    Who gave the ten Commandments? God gave the ten Commandments to Moses in the Old Law, and Christ confirmed them in the New.

251.    What is the First Commandment? The first Commandment is, 'I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, and out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt not have strange gods before me. Thou shalt not make to thyself any graven thing, nor the likeness of anything that is in heaven above, nor in the earth beneath, nor of those things that are in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt not adore them nor serve them.'

252.    What are we commanded to do by the first Commandment? By the first Commandment we are commanded to worship the one, true, and living God, by Faith, Hope, Charity, and Religion.

253.    What are the sins against Faith? The sins against Faith are all false religions, wilful doubt, disbelief, or denial of any article of Faith, and also culpable ignorance of the doctrines of the Church.
 
254.    How do we expose ourselves to the danger of losing our Faith? We expose ourselves to the danger of losing our Faith by neglecting our spiritual duties, reading bad books, going to non-Catholic schools.

255.    What are the sins against Hope? The sins against Hope are despair and presumption.

256.    What are the chief sins against Religion? The chief sins against Religion are the worship of false gods or idols, and the giving to any creature whatsoever the honor which belongs to God alone.

257.    Does the first Commandment forbid the making of images? The first Commandment does not forbid the making of images, but the making of idols; that is, it forbids us to make idols to be adored or honoured as gods.

258.    Does the first Commandment forbid dealing with the devil and superstitious practices? The first Commandment forbids all dealing with the devil and superstitious practices, such as consulting spiritualists and fortune tellers, and trusting to charms, omens, dreams, and such like fooleries.

259.    Are all sins of sacrilege and simony also forbidden by the first Commandment? All sins of sacrilege and simony are also forbidden by the first Commandment.

260.    Is it forbidden to give divine honour or worship to the Angels and Saints? It is forbidden to give divine honor or worship to the Angels and Saints, for this belongs to God alone.

261.    What kind of honour or worship should we give to the Angels and Saints? We should pay to the Angels and Saints an inferior honor or worship, for this is due to them as the servants and special friends of God.

262.    What honour should we give to relics, crucifixes, and holy pictures? We should give to relics, crucifixes, and holy pictures a relative honor, as they relate to Christ and His Saints, and are memorials of them.

263.    Do we pray to relics and images? We do not pray to relics or images, for they can neither see, nor hear, nor help us.

264.    What is the second Commandment? The second Commandment is, 'Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain'.

265.    What are we commanded by the second Commandment? By the second Commandment we are commanded to speak with reverence of God and all holy persons and things, and to keep our lawful oaths and vows.

266.    What does the second Commandment forbid? The second Commandment forbids all false, rash, unjust, and unnecessary oaths; as also blaspheming, cursing and profane words.

267.    Is it ever lawful to swear or to take an oath? It is lawful to swear, or take an oath, only when God's honour, or our own, or our neighbour's good requires it.

268.    What is the third Commandment? The third Commandment is 'Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day.'

269.    What are we commanded by the third Commandment? By the third Commandment we are commanded to keep the Sunday holy.

270.    How are we to keep the Sunday holy? We are to keep the Sunday holy by praying and participating in Mass and resting from servile works.

271.    Why are we commanded to rest from servile works? We are commanded to rest from servile works that we may have time and opportunity for prayer, going to the Sacraments, hearing instructions, and reading good books.

272.    What is the fourth Commandment? The fourth Commandment is, 'Honor thy father and thy mother'.

273.    What are we commanded by the fourth Commandment? By the fourth Commandment we are commanded to love, reverence, and obey our parents in all that is not sin.

274.    Are we commanded to obey our parents only? We are commanded to obey, not only our parents, but also our bishops and pastors, the civil authorities, and our lawful superiors.
 
275.    Are we bound to assist our parents in their wants? We are bound to assist our parents in their wants, both spiritual and temporal.

276.    Are we bound in justice to contribute to the support of our pastors? We are bound in justice to contribute to the support of our pastors; for St. Paul says; ' The Lord ordained that they who preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel'. Cor.9:14

277.    What is the duty of parents toward their children? The duty of parents toward their children is to provide for them, to instruct and correct them, and to give them a good Catholic education.

278.    What is the duty of masters, mistresses, and other superiors? The duty of masters, mistresses, and other superiors is to take proper care of those under their charge, and to enable them to practice their religious duties.

279.    What does the fourth Commandment forbid? The fourth Commandment forbids all contempt, stubbornness, and disobedience to our parents and lawful superiors.

280.    Is it sinful to belong to a Secret Society? It is sinful to belong to any Secret Society that plots against the Church or State, or to any Society that by reason of its secrecy is condemned by the Church; for St. Paul says: 'Let every soul be subject to the higher powers; he that resisteth the power resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist purchase to themselves damnation.' Rom. 13:1,2

281.    What is the fifth Commandment? The fifth Commandment is, 'Thou shalt not kill'.

282.    What does the fifth Commandment forbid? The fifth Commandment forbids all wilful murder, fighting, quarrelling, and injurious words; and also scandal and bad example.

283.    Does the fifth Commandment forbid anger? The fifth Commandment forbids anger, and still more, hatred and revenge.

284.    Why are scandal and bad example forbidden by the fifth Commandment? Scandal and bad example are forbidden by the fifth Commandment, because they lead to the injury and spiritual death of our neighbour's soul.

285.    What is the sixth Commandment? The sixth Commandment is, 'Thou shalt not commit adultery'.

286.    What does the sixth Commandment forbid? The sixth Commandment forbids all sins of impurity with another's wife or husband.

287.    Does the sixth Commandment forbid whatever is contrary to holy purity? The sixth Commandment forbids whatever is contrary to holy purity in looks, words, or actions.

288.    Are immodest television shows, plays and dances forbidden by the sixth Commandment? Immodest television shows, plays and dances are forbidden by the sixth Commandment, and it is sinful to look at them.

289.    Does the sixth Commandment forbid immodest songs, books, and pictures? The sixth Commandment forbids immodest songs, books and pictures, because they are most dangerous to the soul, and lead to mortal sin.

290.    What is the seventh Commandment? The seventh Commandment is, 'Thou shalt not steal'.

291.    What does the seventh Commandment forbid? The seventh Commandment forbids all unjust taking away, or keeping what belongs to another.

292.    Is all manner of cheating in buying and selling forbidden by the seventh Commandment? All manner of cheating in buying and selling is forbidden by the seventh Commandment, and also every other way of wronging our neighbour.

293.    Are we bound to restore ill-gotten goods? We are bound to restore ill-gotten goods if we are able, or else the sin will not be forgiven; we must also pay our debts.
 
294.    Is it dishonest for workers to waste their employer's time or property? It is dishonest for workers to waste their employer's time or property, because it is wasting what is not their own.

295.    What is the eighth Commandment? The eighth Commandment is, 'Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour'.

296.    What does the eighth Commandment forbid? The eighth Commandment forbids all false testimony, rash judgment, and lies.

297.    Are calumny and detraction forbidden by the eighth Commandment? Calumny and detraction are forbidden by the eighth Commandment, and also tale bearing and any words which injure our neighbour's character.

298.    If you have injured your neighbour by speaking ill of him, what are you bound to do? If I have injured my neighbour by speaking ill of him, I am bound to make him satisfaction by restoring his good name as far as I can.

299.    What is the ninth Commandment? The ninth Commandment is, 'Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife'.

300.    What does the ninth Commandment forbid? The ninth Commandment forbids all wilful consent to impure thoughts and desires, and all wilful pleasure in the irregular motions of the flesh.

301.    What sins commonly lead to the breaking of the sixth and ninth Commandments? The sins that commonly lead to the breaking of the sixth and ninth Commandments are gluttony, drunkenness, and intemperance, and also idleness, bad company, and the neglect of prayer.

302.    What is the tenth Commandment? The tenth Commandment is 'Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's goods'.

303.    What does the tenth Commandment forbid? The tenth Commandment forbids all envious and covetous thoughts and unjust desires of our neighbour's goods and profits.

304.    Are we bound to obey the Church? We are bound to obey the Church, because Christ has said to the pastors of the Church: 'He that heareth you, heareth Me: and he that despiseth you, despiseth Me.' Luke 10:16


COMMANDMENTS OF THE CHURCH      BACK TO TOP

305.    What are the chief Commandments of the Church? The chief Commandments of the Church are: To keep the Sundays and Holydays of Obligation holy, by attending Mass and resting from servile works; to keep the days of fasting and abstinence appointed by the Church; to go to confession at least once a year; to receive the Blessed Sacrament during Eastertide; to contribute to the support of our pastors; not to marry within certain degrees of kindred, nor to solemnize marriage at the forbidden times. 

306.    What is the first Commandment of the Church? The first Commandment of the Church is, 'To keep the Sundays and Holydays of Obligation holy, by attending Mass and resting from servile works'.

307.    Which are the Holydays of Obligation observed in the United States? The Holydays of Obligation observed in the United States are: the Circumcision, January 1; the Ascension; the Assumption, August 15; All Saints' Day, November 1; the Immaculate Conception, December 8; Christmas Day, December 25.

308.    Are Catholics bound to attend Mass on Sundays and Holydays of Obligation? Catholics are under a serious obligation to attend Mass on Sundays and Holydays of Obligation unless prevented by other serious duties or by ill health.

309.    Are parents, masters, and mistresses bound to provide that those under their charge shall attend Mass on Sundays and Holydays of Obligation? Parents, masters, and mistresses are bound to provide that those under their charge shall attend Mass on Sundays and Holydays of Obligation.

310.    What is the second Commandment of the Church? The second Commandment of the Church is, 'To keep the days of fasting and abstinence appointed by the Church'.
 
311.    What are fasting days? Fasting days are days on which we are allowed to take only one full meal. The obligation of fasting is restricted to those who have completed their 21st year until they have begun their 60th.

312.    Which are the fasting days? The fasting days are all the days of Lent, the Ember Days, the Vigils of Pentecost, the Immaculate Conception, Christmas, and All Saints.

313.    What are days of abstinence? Days of abstinence are days on which we are forbidden to take flesh-meat and anything made from meat.

314.    Which are the days of abstinence? The days of abstinence are all Fridays of the year, Ash Wednesday, Holy Saturday, the Vigils of All Saints, the Immaculate Conception, and Christmas. The age at which abstinence becomes binding is 7 years.

315.    Why does the Church command us to fast and abstain? The Church commands us to fast and abstain so that we may mortify the flesh and satisfy God for our sins.

316.    What is the third Commandment of the Church? The third Commandment of the Church is: >to go to confession at least once a year.'

317.    How often should we go to Confession? If we have been guilty of serious sin we should go to Confession as soon as possible but never less than once a year.

318.    How soon are children bound to go to Confession? Children are bound to go to Confession as soon as they have come to the use of reason, and are capable of serious sin.

319.    When are children generally supposed to come to the use of reason? Children are generally supposed to come to the use of reason about the age of seven years.

320.    What is the fourth Commandment of the Church? The fourth Commandment of the Church is, 'To receive the Blessed Sacrament at least once a year, and that during Eastertide'.

321.    How soon are Catholics bound to receive the Blessed Sacrament? Catholics are bound to receive the Blessed Sacrament as soon as they are capable of distinguishing the Body of Christ from ordinary bread, and are judged to be sufficiently instructed.

322.    What is the fifth Commandment of the Church? The fifth Commandment of the Church is, 'To contribute to the support of our pastors'.

323.    Is it a duty to contribute to the support of religion? It is a duty to contribute to the support of religion according to our means, so that God may be duly honoured and worshipped, and the kingdom of His Church extended.

324.    What is the sixth Commandment of the Church? The sixth Commandment of the Church is, 'Not to marry within certain degrees of kindred, nor to solemnize marriage at the forbidden times'.

325.    Which are the times in which it is forbidden to marry with solemnity? The Church allows Catholics to marry during Lent and Advent, provided they do so quietly and without much ceremony; a Nuptial Mass is forbidden during these seasons.

THE SACRAMENTS      BACK TO TOP

326.    What is a Sacrament? A Sacrament is an outward sign of inward grace, ordained by Jesus Christ, by which grace is given to our souls.

327.    Do the Sacraments always give grace? The Sacraments always give grace to those who receive them worthily.

328.    Whence have the Sacraments the power of giving grace? The Sacraments have the power of giving grace from the merits of Christ's Precious Blood which they apply to our souls.

329.    Ought we to have a great desire to receive the Sacraments? We ought to have a great desire to receive the Sacraments, because they are the chief means of our salvation.
 
330.    Is a character given to the soul by any of the Sacraments? A character is given to the soul by the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders.

331.    What is a character? A character is a mark or seal on the soul which cannot be effaced, and therefore the Sacrament conferring it may not be repeated.

332.    How many Sacraments are there? There are seven Sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.

SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM      BACK TO TOP

333.    What is Baptism? Baptism is a Sacrament which cleanses us from original sin, gives our souls the new life of sanctifying grace by which we become children of God and heirs of heaven.

334.    Does Baptism also forgive actual sins? Baptism also forgives actual sins, with all punishment due to them, when it is received in proper disposition by those who have been guilty of actual sin.

335.    What are the effects of the character imprinted on the soul by Baptism? The effects of the character imprinted on the soul by Baptism are that we become members of the Church, subject to its laws, and capable of receiving the other sacraments.

336.    Is Baptism of water necessary for the salvation of all men? Baptism of water is necessary for the salvation of all men because Christ has said: 'Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God'. John 3:5

337.    Who is the ordinary minister of Baptism? The ordinary minister of Baptism is a priest; if there is a danger of death, anyone else may and should baptize.

338.    How is Baptism given? Baptism is given by pouring water on the head of the person to be baptized, saying at the same time these words: 'I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost'.

339.    What do we promise through our godparents in Baptism? We promise through our godparents in Baptism to renounce the devil and all his works and pomps and live according to the teachings of Christ and His Church.

340.    When should children be baptized? Children should be baptized as soon as possible after birth.

341.    What sin do Catholic parents commit who put off for a long time, or entirely neglect, the Baptism of their children? Catholic parents who put off for a long time, or entirely neglect, the Baptism of their children, commit a mortal sin.

SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION      BACK TO TOP

342.    What is Confirmation? Confirmation is a Sacrament by which the Holy Ghost comes to us in a special way to make us strong and perfect Catholics and soldiers of Jesus Christ.

343.    Who is the ordinary minister of Confirmation? The ordinary minister of Confirmation is a Bishop.

344.    How does the Bishop administer the Sacrament of Confirmation? The Bishop administers the Sacrament of Confirmation by praying that the Holy Ghost may come down upon those who are to be confirmed; and while laying his hand on the head of each person, anoints the forehead with holy Chrism in the form of a cross, at the same time pronouncing certain words.

345.    What are the words used in Confirmation? The words used in Confirmation are these: 'I sign thee with the sign of the cross and I confirm thee with the Chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost'.

346.     What does the anointing of the forehead with Chrism in the form of a cross signify? The anointing of the forehead with Chrism in the form of a cross signifies that the Catholic who is confirmed must always be ready to profess his faith openly and to practice it fearlessly.
 
347.    What are the effects of Confirmation? Confirmation increases sanctifying grace, gives its special sacramental grace, and imprints a lasting character on the soul.

348.    What is the character of Confirmation? The character of Confirmation is a spiritual and indelible sign which marks the Catholic as a soldier in the army of Christ.

349.    What is necessary to receive Confirmation properly? To receive Confirmation properly it is necessary to be in the state of grace, and to know well the chief truths and duties of our religion.

350.    After we have been confirmed, why should we continue to study our religion even more earnestly than before? After we have been confirmed, we should continue to study our religion even more earnestly than before, so that we may be able to explain and defend our faith, and thus cooperate with the grace of Confirmation.

351.    Why should all Catholics be confirmed? All Catholics should be confirmed in order to be strengthened against the dangers to salvation and to be prepared better to defend their Catholic faith.

SACRAMENT OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST      BACK TO TOP
 
352.    What is the Holy Eucharist? The Holy Eucharist is a sacrament and a sacrifice. In the Holy Eucharist, under the appearance of bread and wine, the Lord Jesus Christ is contained, offered, and received.

353.    When did Christ institute the Holy Eucharist? Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper, the night before He died.

354.    What happened when Our Lord said: "This is My body; this is My blood"? When Our Lord said, "This is My body," the entire substance of the bread was changed into His body; and when He said, "This is My blood," the entire substance of the wine was changed into His blood.

355.    Did anything of the bread and wine remain after their substance had been changed into Our Lord's body and blood? After the substance of the bread and wine had been changed into Our Lord's body and blood, there remained only the appearances of bread and wine.

356.    What do we mean by the appearances of bread and wine? By the appearances of bread and wine we mean their colour, taste, weight, shape, and whatever else appears to the senses.

357.    What is the change of the entire substance of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ called? The change of the entire substance of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ is called Transubstantiation.

358.    How are the bread and wine changed into the Body and Blood of Christ? The bread and wine are changed into the Body and Blood of Christ by the power of God, to whom nothing is impossible or difficult.

359.    Does this change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ continue to be made in the Church? This change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ continues to be made in the Church by Jesus Christ, through the ministry of His priests.

360.    When did Christ give His priests the power to change bread and wine into His body and blood? Christ gave His priests the power to change bread and wine into His body and blood when He made the apostles priests at the Last Supper by saying to them: "Do this in remembrance of Me."

361.    Why does Christ give us His own body and blood in the Holy Eucharist? Christ gives us His own body and blood in the Holy Eucharist: first, to be offered as a sacrifice commemorating and renewing for all time the sacrifice of the cross; second, to be received by the faithful in Holy Communion; third, to remain ever on our altars as the proof of His love for us, and to be worshipped by us.

362.    In order to receive the Blessed Sacrament worthily what is required? In order to receive the Blessed Sacrament worthily it is required that we be in a state of grace and keep the prescribed fast; water does not break this fast.

363.    What is it to be in a state of grace? To be in a state of grace is to be free from mortal sin, and pleasing to God.
 
364.    Is it a great sin to receive Holy Communion in mortal sin? It is a great sin to receive Holy Communion in mortal sin; 'for he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself'. Cor. 11:29

THE SACRIFICE OF THE MASS     BACK TO TOP

365.    What is the Holy Mass? The Holy Mass is the Sacrifice of the New Law in which Christ, through the ministry of the priest, offers Himself to God in an unbloody manner under the appearances of bread and wine.

366.    What is a sacrifice? A sacrifice is the offering of a victim by a priest to God alone, and the destruction of it in some way to acknowledge that He is the Creator of all things.

367.    Who is the principal priest at every Mass? The principal priest at every Mass is Jesus Christ, Who offers to His heavenly Father, through the ministry of His ordained priest, His body and blood which were sacrificed on the cross.

368.    Is the Holy Mass one and the same Sacrifice with that of the Cross? The Holy Mass is one and the same Sacrifice with that of the Cross because in the Mass the victim is the same, and the principal priest is the same, Jesus Christ.

369.    For what ends is the Sacrifice of the Mass offered? The Sacrifice of the Mass is offered for four ends: first, to give supreme honour and glory to God; secondly, to thank Him for all His benefits; thirdly, to satisfy God for our sins and to obtain the grace of repentance; and fourthly, to obtain all other graces and blessings through Jesus Christ.

370.    Is there any difference between the sacrifice of the cross and the sacrifice of the Mass? The manner in which the sacrifice is offered is different. On the cross Christ physically shed His blood and was physically slain, while in the Mass there is no physical shedding of blood nor physical death, because Christ can die no more; on the cross Christ gained merit and satisfied for us, while in the Mass He applies to us the merits and satisfaction of His death on the cross.

SACRAMENT OF PENANCE      BACK TO TOP

371.    What is the Sacrament of Penance? Penance is a Sacrament whereby the sins which we have committed after Baptism are forgiven through the absolution of the priest.

372.    Does the Sacrament of Penance increase the grace of God in the soul? The Sacrament of Penance increase the grace of God in the soul, besides forgiving sin; we should, therefore, often go to confession.

373.    When did our Lord institute the Sacrament of Penance? Our Lord instituted the Sacrament of Penance when he breathed on His Apostles and gave them power to forgive sins, saying: 'Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven.' John 20:23

374.    How does the priest forgive sins? The priest forgives sins by the power of God, when he pronounces the words of absolution.

375.    What are the words of absolution? The words of absolution are: 'I absolve you from your sins, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost'.

376.    What are effects of the sacrament of Penance, worthily received? The effects of the sacrament of Penance, worthily received, are: first, the restoration or increase of sanctifying grace; second, the forgiveness of sins; third, the remission of the eternal punishment, if necessary, and also of part, at least, of the temporal punishment, due to our sins; fourth, the help to avoid sin in future; fifth, the restoration of the merits of our good works if they have been lost by mortal sin.

377.    What else does the sacrament of Penance do for us? The sacrament of Penance also gives us the opportunity to receive spiritual advice and instruction from our confessor.

378.    Are any conditions of forgiveness required on the part of the penitent? Three conditions for forgiveness are required on the part of the penitent - Contrition, Confession, and Satisfaction.
 
379.    What is Contrition? Contrition is a hearty sorrow for our sins, because by them we have offended so good a God, together with a firm purpose of amendment.

380.    What is a firm purpose of amendment? A firm purpose of amendment is a resolution to avoid, by the grace of God, not only sin, but also the dangerous occasions of sin.

381.    How may we obtain a hearty sorrow for our sins? We may obtain a hearty sorrow for our sins by earnestly praying for it, and by making use of such considerations as may lead us to it.

382.    What consideration concerning God will lead us to sorrow for our sins? This consideration concerning God will lead us to sorrow for our sins: that by our sins we have offended God, who is infinitely good in Himself and infinitely good to us.

383.    What other consideration concerning our Saviour will lead us to sorrow for our sins? This consideration concerning our Saviour will lead us to sorrow for our sins: that our Saviour died for our sins, and that those who sin grievously 'crucify again to themselves the Son of God, making Him a mockery'. Heb. 6:6

384.    Is sorrow for our sins, because by them we have lost heaven and deserved hell, sufficient when we go to confession? Sorrow for our sins, because by them we have lost heaven and deserved hell, is sufficient when we go to confession.

385.    What is perfect contrition? Perfect contrition is sorrow for sin arising purely from the love of God.

386.    What special value has perfect contrition? Perfect contrition has this special value: that by it our sins are forgiven immediately, even before we confess them; but nevertheless, if they are mortal, we are strictly bound to confess them afterwards.

387.    What is confession? Confession is to accuse ourselves of our sins to a priest.

388.    How many things have we to do in order to make a good confession? To make a good confession, and receive the sacrament of Penance worthily, we must: first, examine our conscience; second, be sorry for our sins; third, have the firm purpose of not sinning again; fourth, confess our sins to the priest; fifth, be willing to perform the penance the priest gives us.

389.    What if a person wilfully conceals a mortal sin in confession? If a person wilfully conceals a mortal sin in confession, the sins one confesses are not forgiven; moreover he commits a mortal sin of sacrilege.

390.    What must a person do who has knowingly concealed a mortal sin in confession? A person who has knowingly concealed a mortal sin in confession must confess that he has made a bad confession, tell the sin he has concealed, mention the sacraments he has received since that time, and confess all the other mortal sins he has committed since his last good confession.

391.    What are we to do if without our fault, after having gone to confession, we recall that we forgot to confess a mortal sin? If without our fault we forget to confess a mortal sin, we may receive Holy Communion, because we have made a good Confession and the sin is forgiven; but we must tell the sin the next time we go to confession.

392.    Why should a sense of shame and fear of telling our sins to the priest never lead us to conceal a mortal sin in confession? A sense of shame and fear of telling our sins to the priest should never lead us to conceal a mortal sin in confession because the priest, who represents Christ Himself, is bound by the seal of the sacrament of Penance never to reveal anything that has been confessed to him.

393.    What is an examination of conscience? An examination of conscience is a sincere effort to call to mind all the sins we have committed since our last worthy confession.

394.    How can we make a good examination of conscience? We can make a good examination of conscience by calling to mind the Ten Commandments and the Precepts of the Church, and the particular duties of our state in life, and by asking ourselves how we may have sinned with regard to them.

395.    What is satisfaction? Satisfaction is doing the penance given us by the priest.
 
396.    Why does the priest give us a penance after confession? The priest gives us a penance after confession that we may make some atonement to God for our sins, receive help to avoid them in the future, and make some satisfaction for the temporal punishment due to them.

397.    Does the penance given by the priest always make full satisfaction for our sins? The penance given by the priest does not always make full satisfaction for our sins. We should therefore add to it other good works and penances, and try to gain Indulgences.

INDULGENCES      BACK TO TOP

398.    What is an Indulgence? An Indulgence is a remission, granted by the Church, of the temporal punishment which often remains due to sin after its guilt has been forgiven.

399.    How many kinds of Indulgences are there? There are two kinds of indulgences, plenary and partial.

400.     What is a plenary indulgence? A plenary indulgence is the remission of all the temporal punishment due to our sins.

401.    What is a partial indulgence? A partial indulgence is the remission of part of the temporal punishment due to our sins.

402.    How does the Church by means of indulgences remit the temporal punishment due to sin? The Church by means of indulgences remits the temporal punishment due to sin by applying to us from her spiritual treasury part of the infinite satisfaction of Jesus Christ and of the superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of the saints.
403.    What is the superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of the saints? The superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of the saints is that which they gained during their lifetime but did not need, and which the Church applies to their fellow members of the communion of saints.

404.    What must we do to gain an indulgence for ourselves? To gain an indulgence for ourselves we must be in the state of grace, have at least a general intention of gaining the indulgence, and perform the works required by the Church.

405.    Can we gain indulgences for others? We cannot gain indulgences for other living persons, but we can gain them for the souls in purgatory, since the Church makes most indulgences applicable to them.


SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION     BACK TO TOP

406.    What is the Sacrament of Extreme Unction? The Sacrament of Extreme Unction is the sacrament which, through the anointing with blessed oil by the priest, and through his prayer, gives health and strength to the soul and sometimes to the body when we are in danger of death from sickness, accident, or old age.

407.    What authority is there in Scripture for the Sacrament of Extreme Unction? The authority in Scripture for the Sacrament of Extreme Unction is in the 5th chapter of St. James, where it is said: 'Is any one sick among you? Let him bring in the priests of the Church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith shall save the sick man; and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he be in sins they shall be forgiven him'. James 5:14-15

408.    What is anointed by the priest in the administration of Extreme Unction? In the administration of Extreme Unction the priest anoints the eyes, the ears, the nostrils, the lips, the hands, and, if convenient, the feet of the person. When he judges that there is not sufficient time for multiple anointings, he can administer this sacrament by a single anointing on the forehead.

409.    What prayer is said during the anointing? While anointing the different senses the priest says the prayer: "Through this holy anointing, and His most tender mercy, may the Lord forgive you whatever sins you may have committed by sight" (by hearing, etc.)

410.    Who should receive Extreme Unction? All Catholics who have reached the use of reason and are in danger of death from sickness, accident, or old age should receive Extreme Unction.
 
411.    Must a person actually be dying in order to receive Extreme Unction? A person does not actually have to be dying to receive Extreme Unction.

412.    What are the effects of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction? The effects of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction are: first, an increase of sanctifying grace; second, comfort in sickness and strength against temptation; third, preparation for entrance into heaven by the remission of our venial sins and the cleansing of our souls from the remains of sin; fourth, health of body when God sees it to be expedient.

413.    When does Extreme Unction take away mortal sin? Extreme Unction takes away mortal sin when the sick person is unconscious or otherwise unaware that he is not properly disposed, but has made an act of imperfect contrition.

414.    How should we prepare ourselves to receive Extreme Unction? We should prepare ourselves to receive Extreme Unction by a good confession, by acts of faith, hope, charity, and, especially, by resignation to the will of God.

415.    Who can administer Extreme Unction? Only a priest can administer Extreme Unction.

416.    When is it advisable to call the priest to visit the sick? It is advisable to call the priest to visit the sick in any serious illness, even though there by no apparent danger of death, as it is the duty of the priest to visit the sick and to administer to them the sacraments they need.

417.    In case of sudden or unexpected death, should a priest be called? In case of sudden or unexpected death a priest should be called always, because absolution and Extreme Unction can be given conditionally for some time after apparent death.

SACRAMENT OF HOLY ORDERS     BACK TO TOP

418.    What is the Sacrament of Holy Orders? Holy Orders is the Sacrament by which men receive the power and grace to perform the sacred duties of bishops, priests, and other ministers of the deacons of the Church.

419.    Whence comes the distinction between clergy and laity? The distinction between clergy and laity is of divine origin, for: first, Christ chose the twelve apostles from among His disciples and in a special way deputed and consecrated them for the exercise of spiritual ministrations; second, the apostles, who could not mistake the will of Christ, administered the sacrament of Holy Orders by consecrating bishops and by ordaining priests and deacons.

420.    What is a bishop? A bishop is a priest who has received the fullness of Holy Orders, which gives him the power of administering the sacrament of Holy Orders, and makes him the ordinary minister of the sacrament of Confirmation.

421.    What are the major orders? The major orders are subdeacon, deacon, and priest.

422.    What are the minor orders? The minor orders are porter, lector, exorcist, and acolyte.

423.    What are the effects of ordination to the priesthood? The effects of ordination to the priesthood are: first, an increase of sanctifying grace; second, sacramental grace, through which the priest has God's constant help in his sacred ministry; third, a character on his soul, lasting forever, which is  special sharing in the priesthood of Christ and which gives the priest special supernatural powers. 

424.    What are the chief supernatural powers of the priest? The chief supernatural powers of the priest are: to change bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, and to forgive sins in the sacrament of Penance.

425.    Why should Catholics show reverence and honour to the priest? Catholics should show reverence and honour to the priest because he is the representative of Christ Himself - Another Christ - and the dispenser of His mysteries.
 
426.    How does one become a member of the clergy? One becomes a member of the clergy through the ceremony of tonsure in which hair is cut from the head in the form of a cross while the bishop recites a verse from the Psalms to signify that the one receiving the tonsure has dedicated himself to the service of God.

427.    What are some of the preliminary signs of a vocation to the priesthood? Some of the preliminary signs of a vocation to the priesthood are: first, that the young man be capable of living habitually in the state of grace; second, that he be attracted to the priesthood and manifest this attraction by frequent confession and Communion, b a virtuous life, and by a love of serving Mass.

428.    Does a young man "hear" the call to the priesthood? Those who are called to the priesthood ordinarily receive no special revelation to this effect. God expects all to use the gifts of reason and of grace in determining their state in life.

429.    What is a diocesan (secular) priest? A diocesan (secular) priest is one who works under the direction of the local bishop, in a given diocese. These priests bind themselves to chastity for life and make a solemn promise of obedience to their bishop.

430.    What is a religious priest? A religious priest is a member of a religious community who has taken vows of poverty, chastity and obedience according to the rule of his community.


SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY     BACK TO TOP

431.    What is the Sacrament of Matrimony? Matrimony is the sacrament by which a baptized man and a baptized woman bind themselves for life in a lawful marriage and receive the grace to discharge their duties.

432.    What is the outward sign of the sacrament of Matrimony? The outward sign of the sacrament of Matrimony is the external expression by the man and woman of their mutual consent to give themselves to each other as husband and wife.

433.    Who administers the Sacrament of Matrimony? The Sacrament of Matrimony is administered by the contacting parties, each of whom confers the sacrament on the other.

434.    What special grace does the Sacrament of Matrimony The Sacrament of Matrimony gives to those who receive it worthily a special grace, to enable them to bear the difficulties of their state, to love and be faithful to one another, and to bring up their children in the fear of God.

435.    What is necessary to receive the sacrament of Matrimony worthily? To receive the Sacrament of Matrimony worthily it is necessary to be in the state of grace, to know the duties of married life, and to obey the marriage laws of the Church.

436.    What should Catholics do to prepare for a holy and happy marriage? To prepare for a holy and happy marriage, Catholics should: first, pray that God may direct their choice; second, seek the advice of their parents and confessors; third, practice the virtues, especially chastity; fourth, frequently receive the sacraments of Penance and Holy Eucharist.

437.    Is it a sacrilege to contract marriage in serious sin, or in disobedience to the laws of the Church? It is a sacrilege to contract marriage in serious sin, or in disobedience to the laws of the Church, and, instead of a blessing, the guilty parties draw upon themselves the anger of God. For a marriage of a Catholic to be valid there must be present 1. either the Bishop or the Parish Priest, or another Priest duly delegated, and 2. two witnesses.

438.    Are Catholics who get married by a justice of peace really married? The marriage of Catholics before a justice of the peace or a civil official is not really a marriage. Catholics who live together after such a ceremony are living in sin just as much as if they had never gone through such a ceremony.

439.    What is a 'mixed marriage'? A 'mixed marriage' is a marriage in which only one partner is a Catholic.

440.    Does the Church encourage mixed marriages? The Church does not encourage mixed marriages and considers them dangerous.
 
441.    Does the Church sometimes permit mixed marriages? The Church sometimes permits mixed marriages by granting a dispensation, and under special conditions.

442.    What does the Catholic partner of a mixed marriage promise? The Catholic partner of a mixed marriage promises to do everything possible to preserve the faith and have all children of the marriage baptized and brought up in the Catholic religion.

443.    Can any human power dissolve the bond of marriage? No human power can dissolve the bond of marriage, because Christ has said: "What God has joined together, let no man put asunder" Matt. 19:6

444.    What is the chief duty of husband and wife in the married state? The chief duty of husband and wife in the married state is to be faithful to each other, and to provide in every way for the welfare of the children God may give them.

445.    What authority has the State regarding the marriages of Catholics? Regarding the marriages of Catholics, the State has the authority to make laws concerning their effects that are merely civil.

446.    What is meant by the civil effects of matrimony? By the civil effects of matrimony are meant the rights and obligations of husband and wife as citizens: for example, the right to a share in the property of the other.


SACRAMENTALS      BACK TO TOP

447.    What are sacramentals? Sacramentals are holy things or actions of which the Church makes use to obtain for us from God, through her intercession, spiritual and temporal favours.

448.    How do the sacramentals obtain favours from God? The sacramentals obtain favours from God through the prayers of the Church offered for those who make use of them, and through the devotion they inspire.

449.    What are the chief benefits obtained by the use of sacramentals? The chief benefits obtained by the use of the sacramentals are: first, actual graces; second, the forgiveness of venial sins; third, the remission of temporal punishment; fourth, health of body and material blessings; fifth, protection from evil spirits.

450.    Which are the chief kinds of sacramentals? The chief kinds of sacramentals are: first, blessings given by priests and bishops; second, exorcisms against evil spirits; third, blessed objects of devotion.

451.    Which are the blessed objects of devotion most used by Catholics? The blessed objects of devotion most used by Catholics are: holy water, candles, ashes, palms, crucifixes, medals, rosaries, scapulars, and images of Our Lord, the Blessed Virgin, and the saints.

452.    How should we make use of the sacramentals? We should make use of the sacramentals with faith and devotion, and never make them objects of superstition.

VIRTUES     BACK TO TOP

453.    Which are the Theological Virtues? The Theological Virtues are 'Faith, Hope, and Charity'. 1 Cor. 13:13

454.    Why are they called Theological Virtues? They are called Theological Virtues because they relate immediately to God.

455.    What are the chief mysteries of Faith which every Catholic is bound to know? The chief mysteries of Faith which every Catholic is bound to know are the Unity and Trinity of God, who will render to every man according to his works, and the Incarnation, Death, and Resurrection of our Saviour.

456.    Which are the Cardinal Virtues? The Cardinal Virtues are 'Prudence, Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance'. Wisdom 8:7

457.    Why are they called Cardinal Virtues? They are called Cardinal Virtues because they are, as it were, the hinges on which all other moral virtues turn.
 
458.    Which are the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost? The seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are: Wisdom, Understanding, Counsel, Fortitude, Knowledge, Piety, and Fear of the Lord    Is. 11:2,3

459.    Which are the twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost? The twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost are: Charity, Joy, Peace, Patience, Benignity, Goodness, Longanimity, Mildness, Faith, Modesty, Continency, and Chastity    Gal. 5:22

460.    Which are the two great precepts of Charity? The two great precepts of Charity are: 'Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole mind, and with thy whole strength'. And  'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself'.    Mark 12:30,31

461.    Which are the seven Corporal Works of Mercy? The seven Corporal Works of Mercy are: To feed the hungry, To give drink to the thirsty, to clothe the naked, to visit the imprisoned, to shelter the homeless, to visit the sick, and to bury the dead.      Matt. 25; Tobias 12

462.    Which are the seven Spiritual Works of Mercy? The seven Spiritual Works of Mercy are: to admonish the sinner, to instruct the ignorant, to counsel the doubtful, to comfort the sorrowful, to bear wrongs patiently, to forgive all injuries, and to pray for the living and the dead.

463.    Which are the eight Beatitudes? The eight Beatitudes are: Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are the meek; for they shall possess the land. Blessed are they that mourn; for they shall be comforted. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice; for they shall have their fill. Blessed are the merciful; for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the clean of heart; for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers; for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.   Matt. 5:3-10

464.    Which are the seven capital sins or vices and their contrary virtues? The seven capital sins or vices and their contrary virtues are: Pride vs. Humility; Covetousness vs. Liberality; Lust vs. Chastity; Anger vs. Meekness; Gluttony vs. Temperance; Envy vs. Brotherly Love; Sloth vs. Diligence.

465.    Which are the six sins against the Holy Ghost? The six sins against the Holy Ghost are: Presumption, Despair of spiritual good, Resisting the known truth, Envy of another's spiritual good, Obstinacy in sin, and Final impenitence.

466.    Which are the four sins crying to heaven for vengeance? The four sins crying to heaven for vengeance are: Wilful murder, the sin of Sodom, Oppression of the poor, and defrauding labourers of their wages.

467.    When are we answerable for the sins of others? We are answerable for the sins of others whenever we either cause them, or share in them, through our own fault.

468.    In how many ways may we either cause or share the guilt of another's sin? We may either cause or share the guilt of another's sin in nine ways: 1. By counsel, by command, by consent in sin, by provocation, by praise of flattery, by concealment, by being a partner, by silence, and by defending the ill done.

469.    Which are the three eminent Good Works? The three eminent Good Works are Prayer, Fasting, and Almsdeeds.

470.    Which are the Evangelical Councils? The Evangelical Councils are voluntary Poverty, perpetual Chastity and entire Obedience.

471.    What are the four last things to be ever remembered? The four last things to be ever remembered are Death, Judgment, Hell, and Heaven. Ecclus 7:40

RULE OF LIFE     BACK TO TOP

472.    What rule of life must we follow if we hope to be saved? If we hope to be saved, we must follow the rule of life taught by Jesus Christ.

473.    What are we bound to do by the rule of life taught by Jesus Christ? By the rule of life taught by Jesus Christ we are bound always to hate sin and to love God.
 
474.    How must we hate sin? We must hate sin above all other evils, so as to be resolved never to commit a wilful sin, for the love or fear of anything whatsoever.

475.    How must be love God? We must love God above all things, and with our whole heart.

476.    How must we learn to love God? We must learn to love God by begging of God to teach us to love Him: 'O my God, teach me to love You'.

477.    What will the love of God lead us to do? The love of God will lead us often to think how good God is; often to speak to Him in our hearts; and always to seek to please Him.

478.    Does Jesus Christ also command us to love one another? Jesus Christ also commands us to love one another - that is, all persons without exception - for His sake.

479.    How are we to love one another? We are to love one another by wishing well to one another, and praying for one another; and by never allowing ourselves any thought, word or deed to the injury of anyone.

480.    Are we also bound to love our enemies? We are also bound to love our enemies; not only by forgiving them from our hearts, but also by wishing them well, and praying for them.

481.    Has Jesus Christ given us another great rule? Jesus Christ has given us another great rule in these words 'if any man will come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow Me'. Luke 9:23

482.    How are we to deny ourselves? We are to deny ourselves by giving up our own will, and by going against our own humours, inclinations, and passions.
483.    Why are we bound to deny ourselves? We are bound to deny ourselves because our natural inclinations are prone to evil from our very childhood; and, if not corrected by self-denial, they will certainly carry us to hell.

484.    How are we to take up our cross daily? We are to take up our cross daily by submitting daily with patience to the labours and sufferings of this short life, and by bearing them willingly for the love of God.

485.    How are we to follow our Blessed Lord? We are to follow our Blessed Lord by walking in His footsteps and imitating His virtues.

486.    What are the principal virtues we are to learn of our Blessed Lord? The principal virtues we are to learn of our Blessed Lord are meekness, humility, and obedience.

487.    Which are the enemies we must fight against all the days of our life? The enemies which we must fight against all the days of our life are the devil, the world, and the flesh.

488.    What do you mean by the devil? By the devil I mean Satan and all his wicked angels, who are ever seeking to draw us into sin, that we may be damned with them.

489.    What do you mean by the world? By the world I mean the false maxims of the world and the society of those who love the vanities, riches and pleasures of this world better than God.

490.    Why do you number the devil and the world amongst the enemies of the soul? I number the devil and the world amongst the enemies of the soul because they are always seeking, by temptation and by work or example, to carry us along with them in the broad road that leads to damnation.

491.    What do you mean by the flesh? By the flesh I mean our own corrupt inclinations and passions, which are the most dangerous of all our enemies.

492.    What must we do to hinder the enemies of our soul from drawing us into sin? To hinder the enemies of our soul from drawing us into sin, we must watch, pray, and fight against all their suggestions and temptations.

493.    In the warfare against the devil, the world, and the flesh, on whom must we depend? In the warfare against the devil, the world, and the flesh we must depend not on ourselves but on God only; 'I can do all things in Him who strengtheneth me'. Philip. 4:13

 
MEANS OF HOLINESS     BACK TO TOP

494.    How should you begin the day? I should begin the day by making the sign of the cross as soon as I awake in the morning, and by saying some short prayer, such as, 'O my God, I offer my heart and soul to You'.

495.    How should you rise in the morning? I should rise in the morning diligently, dress myself modestly, and then kneel down and say my morning prayers.

496.    Should you also attend Mass if you have time and opportunity? I should also attend Mass if I have time and opportunity, for to attend Mass is by far the best and most profitable of all devotions.

497.    Is it useful to make daily meditation? It is useful to make daily meditation, for such was the practice of all the saints.

498.    On what ought we to meditate? We ought to meditate especially on the four last things, and the Life and Passion of our Blessed Lord.

499.    Ought we frequently to read good books? We ought frequently to read good books, such as the Holy Gospels, the Lives of the Saints, and other spiritual works, which nourish our faith and piety, and arm us against the false maxims of the world.

500.    And what should you do as to your eating, drinking, sleeping, and amusements? As to my eating, drinking, sleeping, and amusements, I should use all these things with moderation, and with a desire to please God.

501.    Say the grace before meals? "Bless us, O Lord, and these Thy gifts, which we are about to receive from Thy bounty, through Christ our Lord. Amen."

502.    Say the grace after meals? "We give Thee thanks, Almighty God, for all Thy benefits, Thou Who livest and reignest, world without end. May the souls of the faithful departed through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen."

503.    How should you sanctify your ordinary actions and employments of the day? I should sanctify my ordinary actions and employments of the day by often raising up my heart to God whilst I am about them, and saying some short prayer to Him.

504.    What should you do when you find yourself tempted to sin? When I find myself tempted to sin I should make the sign of the cross on my heart and call on God as earnestly as I can, saying, 'Lord, save me, or I perish.'

505.    If you have fallen into sin, what should you do? If I have fallen into sin I should cast myself in spirit at the feet of Christ, and humbly beg His pardon by a sincere act of contrition. If it is a mortal sin, I will get to confession as quickly as possible.

506.    When God sends you any cross, or sickness, or pain, what should you say? When God sends me any cross, or sickness, or pain, I should say, 'Lord, your will be done. I take this for my sins'.

507.    What prayers would you do well to say often to yourself during the day? I should do well to say often to myself during the day such prayers as - Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, as it was in the beginning, is now and ever shall be, world without end. Amen. In all things may the most holy, the most just, and the most loveable Will of God be done, praised, and exalted above all forever. O Sacrament most holy, O Sacrament divine, all praise and all thanksgiving be every moment thine. Praised be Jesus Christ, praised for evermore. My Jesus, mercy; Mary, help.

508.    How should you finish the day? I should finish the day by kneeling down and saying my night prayers, which includes an examination of conscience and act of contrition.

509.    After your night prayers what should you do? After my night prayers I should observe due modesty in going to bed; occupy myself with the thoughts of death; and endeavour to compose myself to rest at the foot of the Cross, and give my last thoughts to my crucified Saviour.

 
BASIC CATHOLIC PRAYERS     BACK TO TOP


THE SIGN OF THE CROSS
In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy  Ghost. Amen.

THE LORD'S PRAYER
Our Father, Who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name: Thy kingdom come; Thy will be  done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

THE HAIL MARY
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

THE GLORY BE
Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

THE APOSTLES' CREED
I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only  Son, our Lord; Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. He descended into hell; the third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting. Amen.

THE CONFITEOR
I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary ever Virgin, to blessed Michael the Archangel, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and to all the saints, that I have exceedingly in thought, word, and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault. Therefore, I beseech blessed Mary ever Virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the saints, to pray to the Lord our God for me.
May the Almighty God have mercy on us, forgive us our sins, and bring us to everlasting life. Amen.
May the Almighty and merciful Lord grant us pardon, absolution, and remission of all our sins. Amen.
 
MORNING OFFERING
O my God, I offer Thee all my prayers, works, joys, and sufferings in union with the Sacred Heart of Jesus, for the intentions for which He pleads and offers Himself in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, in thanksgiving for Thy favours, in reparation for my offences, and in humble supplication for my temporal and eternal welfare, for the wants of holy Mother Church, for the conversion of sinners, and for the relief of the poor souls in purgatory. I wish to gain all the indulgences attached to the prayers I shall say and to the good works I shall perform this day.

ACT OF FAITH
O my God, I firmly believe that You are One God in Three Divine Persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; I believe that Thy Divine Son became Man and died for our sins, and that He will come to judge the living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths which the Holy Catholic Church teaches, because Thou hast revealed them, Who can neither deceive nor be deceived.

ACT OF HOPE
O my God, relying on Thine infinite goodness and promises, I hope to obtain pardon of my sins, the help of Thy grace, and life everlasting, through the merits of Jesus Christ, my Lord and Redeemer.

ACT OF CHARITY
O my God, I love Thee above all things, with my whole heart and soul, because Thou art are all good and worthy of all love. I love my neighbour as myself for the love of Thee. I forgive all who have injured me, and ask pardon of all whom I have injured.
 
ACT OF CONTRITION
O my God, I am heartily sorry for having offended thee, and I detest all my sins because I dread the loss of Heaven and the pains of hell, but most of all because they offend Thee, my God, Who art all-good and deserving of all my love. I firmly resolve with the help of Thy grace, to confess my sins, to do penance, and to amend my life. Amen.

THE HOLY ROSARY

The Five Joyful Mysteries:
1. The Annunciation 2. The Visitation 3. The Birth of our Lord 4. The Purification 5. The Finding of the Child Jesus in the Temple.

The Five Sorrowful Mysteries:
1. The Agony in the Garden 2. The Scourging at the Pillar 3. The Crowning with Thorns 4. The Carrying of the Cross 5. The Crucifixion and Death of our Lord.

The Five Glorious Mysteries:
1. The Resurrection 2. The Ascension 3. The Descent of the Holy Ghost 4. The Assumption 5. The Coronation of our Lady.

Hail, holy Queen, Mother of Mercy, Hail, our life, our life, our sweetness, and our hope! To thee do we cry, poor banished children of Eve; to thee do we send up our sighs, mourning and weeping in the valley of tears. Turn, then, most gracious Advocate, thine eyes of mercy toward us; and after this our exile show unto us the blessed fruit of thy womb, Jesus; O clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary.

V. Pray for us, O holy Mother of God. R. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

LET US PRAY O God, whose only begotten Son, by His life, death, and resurrection, has purchased for us the rewards of eternal salvation, grant, we beseech Thee, that meditating upon these mysteries of the most holy rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary, we may imitate what they contain and obtain what they promise, through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.
May the Divine assistance remain always with us. May the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen.

DEVOTIONAL PRAYERS

THE ANGELUS
During the year (outside Eastertide) at morning, midday, and evening.
V. The Angel of the Lord declared to Mary, R. And she conceived of the Holy Ghost. Hail Mary, etc.
V. Behold the handmaid of the Lord. R. Be it done unto me according to thy word. Hail Mary, etc.
V. And the Word was made Flesh, R. And dwelt among us. Hail Mary, etc.
V. Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God. R. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

LET US PRAY Pour forth, we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy Grace into our hearts; that we, to whom the Incarnation of Christ, Thy Son, was made known by the message of an angel, may by His passion and cross be brought to the glory of His Resurrection, through the same Christ our Lord. R. Amen.

THE REGINA COELI
During Eastertide (Easter to Pentecost) at morning, midday, and evening.
Queen of Heaven, rejoice, alleluia, For He Whom thou didst deserve to bear, alleluia. Hath risen as He said, alleluia. Pray for us to God, alleluia.
V. Rejoice and be glad, O Virgin Mary, alleluia R. For the Lord is truly risen, alleluia.

LET US PRAY O God, Who by the resurrection of Thy Son, Our Lord Jesus Christ, has vouchsafed to make glad the whole world, grant, we beseech Thee, that, through the intercession of the virgin Mary, His Mother, we may attain the joys of eternal life. Through the same Christ our Lord. R. Amen.
 
FOR PURITY
Jesus, Mary and Joseph, I entrust and consecrate myself entirely to Thee - mind, heart and body. Guard and defend me always from every sin. May my mind be uplifted to heavenly things, may my heart love God more and more, may I avoid every evil occasion. Hold me close to Thee, so that I may keep watch of my internal and external senses. Preserve me from all impurity, and help me to serve Thee with undefiled mind, pure heart and chaste body, so that in heaven I may join the blessed company of the saints.

MEMORARE
Remember, O most gracious Virgin Mary, that never was it known that anyone who fled to thy protection, implored thy help or sought thine intercession, was left unaided. Inspired with this confidence, we fly to thee, O Virgin of virgins, our Mother. To thee do we come; before thee we kneel, sinful and sorrowful. O Mother of the Word Incarnate, despise not our petitions, but in thy clemency hear and answer us. Amen.

ANIMA CHRISTI
Soul of Christ, sanctify me. Body of Christ, save me. Blood of Christ, fill all my veins. Water of Christ's side, wash out my stains. Passion of Christ, my comfort be. O good Jesus, listen to me. Within Thy wounds, would I hide. Never more to be parted from Thee. Guard me when the foe assails me. Call me, when this life shall fail me. Bid me come to Thee above. With Thy saints to sing Thy love, World without end. Amen.

MIRACULOUS MEDAL PRAYER
"O Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee." 

ASPIRATION
Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, I give you my heart and my soul. Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, assist me in my last agony. Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, may I die in peace, and in your blessed company. 

PRAYER BEFORE THE CRUCIFIX
O good and gentle Jesus, before Thy face I humbly kneel and with the greatest fervour of spirit I beg and beseech of Thee to implant firmly into my heart lively sentiments of faith, hope and charity; contrition for my sins and a firm purpose of amendment. Meanwhile, I meditate on Thy five most precious wounds, having ever before my eyes the words of David, the Prophet, concerning Thee, my Jesus: "They have pierced my hands and my feet. They have numbered all my bones.

PRAYER TO ST. MICHAEL
St. Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle; be our defense against the wickedness and snares of the devil. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray, and do thou, O Prince of the heavenly host, by the power of God, cast into hell, Satan and all the evil spirits, who prowl about the world, seeking the ruin of souls. Amen.


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